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Crime against women

Crime against women

Promises to address gender gap are far from reality. In India, women do not seem to enjoy all the rights to freedom provided under the Constitution of India. According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), India, a crime against women is recorded every 1.6 minutes in India. Every 4.8 minutes a girl is subjected to domestic violence in this country and every 13.5 minutes a rape case is recorded.


According to the report of NCRB for the year 2016, cases under “Crime Against Women” increased by 2.9% in 2016 over 2015. Majority of cases were under the head “Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives” (32.6%) followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (25.0%), ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (19.0%) and ‘Rape’ (11.5%).


Uttar Pradesh reported the highest number of total cases of crimes against women (14.5% share of all India total - 49,262 cases) followed by West Bengal (9.6% share - 32,513 cases) during 2016. Delhi UT reported the highest crime rate (160.4 cases per lakh of female population) compared to the national average rate of 55.2.


A more appropriate measure of extent of safety enjoyed by women is the number of violence per unit population (referred to as rate of crime). According to this measure, Delhi emerges as the most unsafe place with 160.4 incidents of violence per lakh of female population (15,310 incidents and a share of 4.5% of all India total incidents of violence against women. Assam (131.3 incidents per lakh of female population, 2.58% share of population and 6.2% share of total incidents), Odisha (84.5 incidents per lakh of female population, 3.43% share of population and 5.3% share of total incidents), Telengana (83.7 incidents per lakh of female population, 2.99% share of population and 4.5% share of total incidents) and Rajasthan (78.3 incidents per lakh of female population, 5.7% share of population and 8.1% share of total incidents) occupy the next four positions in that order.


Considering both the parameters the top five most unsafe areas are Assam (6th in percentage share and 2nd in rate of crime), Rajasthan (4th in percentage share and 5th in rate of crime), West Bengal (2nd in percentage share and 7th in rate of crime), Odisha (7th in percentage share and 3rd in rate of crime) and Delhi (10th in percentage share and 1st in rate of crime).


Acid attacks - also known as vitriolage is a violent attack especially on women. Every year around 1500 people are attacked in this way across the world. Reports indicate that out of them, 80% are women and 40% to 70% are below 18 years of age.


During the year 2016 number of victims subjected to acid attacks went up by 23.3% form 249 (in 2015) to 307. Among the states and UT-s, West Bengal registered a jump of 102.4% from 41 (in 2015) to 86 which is the highest among all. Number of incidents recorded in Uttar Pradesh (second largest number of victims during the year) remained static at 61 while Delhi recorded marginal rise from 21 (in 2015) to 23 and has recorded the 3rd largest number of victims. Punjab recorded the 4th highest number of victims at 18 (compared to 7 in 2015 – 157.1 % rise) and Haryana has registered the 5th largest number at 17 which is 41.7% higher than last year (12 victims in 2015). As many as 5 victims each were affected in the cities of Ahmedabad and Kolkata during the year.


Rape cases have increased by 12.4% from 34,651 cases in 2015 to 38,947 in 2016. Madhya Pradesh (4,882 cases - 12.5% share) and Uttar Pradesh (4,816 cases - 12.4% share) reported the highest incidents of Rape during 2016 followed by Maharashtra (4,189 cases - 10.7% share).


Cases of Kidnapping and abduction increased by 9.71% from 60,652 cases in 2015 to 66,544 cases in 2016. The highest numbers were recorded in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Assam and West Bengal in that order.


During 2016 West Bengal recorded the largest number of Trafficking of Women during the year at 222 cases followed by Kerala (189 cases), Jharkhand (171 cases) and Odisha (132 cases).


Although the largest number of incidents of crime against women have been recorded under the head “Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives” the number of incidents recorded under this head during 2016 (110,434 cases) represents marginal decline of 2.74% over the number recorded during the previous year (113,548 cases in 2015). The highest number was recorded in the state of West Bengal (19,305 cases 17.48% share) followed by Rajasthan (13,814 cases 12.51% share), Uttar Pradesh (11,166 cases 10.11% share), Assam (9,321 cases 8.44% share) and Maharashtra (7,215 cases 6.53% share).


However, the number of incidents recorded under the head ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ showed an increase of 3.06% during 2016 (85,332 cases) over 2015 (82,800 cases). The highest number was recorded in the state of Maharashtra (11,454 cases 13.42% share) followed by Uttar Pradesh (11,338 cases 13.29% share), Madhya Pradesh (8,720 cases 10.22% share), Odisha (8,269 cases 9.69% share) and Karnataka (5,313 cases 6.23% share).


Among the 19 metropolitan cities for which data has been made available, Delhi (14108 cases) has accounted for 32.93 percent of total crime against women in these cities followed by Mumbai (5261 cases; 12.28 percent), Bengaluru (3531 cases; 8.24 percent), Hyderabad (2451 cases; 5.72 percent) and Lucknow (2205 cases; 5.15 percent).


The rate of cognizable crimes against women was significantly higher in Delhi, Lucknow, Jaipur, Patna and Nagpur at 182.1, 159.8, 144.1, 133.8, and 113.0 per lakh of female population respectively as compared to average of metropolitan cities at 77.2 per lakh of female population. 


National capital Delhi has reported 40.47 percent (2006 out of 4957 cases) of rape cases reported from these 19 metropolitan cities, 37.04 percent (3601 out of 9,722 cases) of kidnapping and abduction cases, 29.82 percent (3645 out of 12,222) of cases under “Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives”, 35.71 percent (3645 out of 12,222) of cases under ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ and 37.5 percent (42 out of 127 cases) of Trafficking of women among 19 metropolitan cities, the NCRB report said. However the highest number of Trafficking of women from amongst these 19 metropolitan cities was reported form Kochi at 48 (37.8 percent). The three cities of Kochi, Delhi and Kolkata together accounted for 88.2 percent of all cases of Trafficking of women from amongst these 19 metropolitan cities

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